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Singer's work has since been widely built upon by philosophers, both those who agree as well as by ethical vegetarians and vegans.
Ethical vegetarians say that the reasons for not hurting or killing animals are similar to the reasons for not hurting or killing humans.
essay contest on the ethics of eating meat, summarized his argument in the following way: "eating meat raised in specific circumstances is ethical; eating meat raised in other circumstances is unethical" in regard to environmental usage.
He proposes that if "ethical is defined as living in the most ecologically benign way, then in fairly specific circumstances, of which each eater must educate himself, eating meat is ethical." The specific circumstances he mentions include using animals to cycle nutrients and convert sun to food.
Less radical proponents argue that practices like well-managed free-range rearing and the consumption of hunted animals, particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated, could satisfy the demand for mass-produced meat.
Many thinkers have questioned the morality not only of the double standard underlying speciesism but also the double standard underlying the fact that people support treatment of cows, pigs, and chickens that they would never allow with pet dogs, cats, or birds.
Moreover, consciousness is not a black-or-white, all-or-nothing type of phenomenon, as is often assumed.
The differences between humans and other species are so great that speculations about animal consciousness seem ungrounded.
may also object to the practices underlying the production of meat, or cite their concerns about animal welfare, animal rights, environmental ethics, and religious reasons.
In response, some proponents of meat-eating have adduced various scientific, nutritional, cultural, and religious arguments in support of the practice.