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By mid-1985, the agreement between the government and M-19 foundered and M-19 leader Alvaro Fayad announced that the group would return to combat. INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING COLOMBIAN ASYLUM-SEEKERS AND REFUGEES (Geneva Sep 2002). COLOMBIA: COUNTRY REPORT (Oct 2003) – uk/default.asp? In November of that year, two dozen guerrillas of the remaining M-19 seized the Palace of Justice, the main judiciary building, in Bogotá and held its occupants hostage. "Ex-Rebels in Colombia See Peaceful Pursuit of Reform Fail" (Dallas: ), p.

Response: MOVIMIENTO 19 DE ABRIL According to information available to the RIC, most guerrilla groups in Colombia emerged from the era of "La Violencia" which ended in the mid-1960s. The exact year of the founding of the Movimiento 19 de Abril (April 19 Movement, M-19), however, is not clear.

As noted above, one of its founders, Jaime Bateman Cayón, had been a member of the FARC, but many M-19 members came from universities or unions, and "many had families with deep roots in the system they wanted to overthrow." Another founder, Carlos Toledo Plata, was a physician and an ANAPO representative in Congress (Kirk, 63; On War.com).

In the late 1970s, the M-19 began to kidnap drug traffickers, or their children, for ransom.

Losses in the Palace of Justice attack and the killing of its top political and military strategist, Alvaro Fayad, in March 1987 dealt severe blows to the M-19.

In July 1989, the government and M-19 leader Carlos Pizarro León-Gómez negotiated a pact.

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